Posted 4 months ago

Who told me about this? THANK YOU! I am down 14 pounds!!!!

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Posted 8 months ago
New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/unexplained-infertility-through-in-vitro-fertilisation-ivf/Unexplained Infertility Through In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a treatment used for couples who have unexplained infertility. Having unexplained fertility means that doctors don’t know the reason as to why you can’t get pregnant. From the latest research updates, IVF can help infertile couples. Its performance depends partly on the couple’s age and the clinic they attend.
 
IVF is a short form for In Vitro fertilization. It’s currently one of the best and mostly used forms of ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology). Scientists use ovules and sperms in a laboratory to assist couples get a baby. IVF is normally recommended after other options have failed.
 
The process of fertilization is carried out in the lab. Doctors combine the male’s sperm and the female’s egg in a lab (In Vitro). The fertilized embryo is then implanted into the female womb to allow growth to occur in a normal environment like other normal pregnancies.
 
The IVF cycle treatments consist of a series of stages. At first, the female receives hormone treatments for egg preparation. The treatment is usually in form of a nasal spray and injections. This increases egg production and the ovary ends up producing about 20 eggs instead of one. This increases the chances of having a fertilized egg.
 
The egg’s growth is monitored using ultra sound scans. The doctors also ensure that the womb’s lining is thickening in preparation for pregnancy. When enough number of eggs has matured, the doctor removes the eggs carefully. The eggs are sucked out by a fine needle that is passed up through the vaginal wall to the ovary. An aesthetic is offered during the process. Further hormonal treatments follow to prepare the womb for pregnancy.
The doctor combines the female’s egg and the male’s sperms in a special fluid that encourages fertilization. This is done in the lab. When the two fuses, fertilization is said to have taken place. The new fertilized egg is called an embryo.
 
The embryos are left for 2 to 5 days after which the doctor puts one or two healthy embryos in the female’s womb. This is done using a fine tube which is placed up through the cervix into the vagina. Aesthetic are not necessary for this process.
 
Sometimes IVF can be used together with ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection). The ICSI involves a sperm being injected directly into an egg. The reason for this can be if there was a first attempt and it failed.
 
Recent research shows that IVF increases the chances of having a baby. It may not work for the first try so one has to try for several times. The treatment works best for females under the age of 35 years. A couple should consider going to a big fertility clinic for better chances of fertilization.
 
For financial issues, a couple may apply for Ehic application (EHIC). The card allows you to access medical health care at a reduced cost and sometimes free of charge. It covers for a routine maternity care so long as you remain within the European jurisdictions when giving birth.

New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/unexplained-infertility-through-in-vitro-fertilisation-ivf/

Unexplained Infertility Through In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a treatment used for couples who have unexplained infertility. Having unexplained fertility means that doctors don’t know the reason as to why you can’t get pregnant. From the latest research updates, IVF can help infertile couples. Its performance depends partly on the couple’s age and the clinic they attend.

 
IVF is a short form for In Vitro fertilization. It’s currently one of the best and mostly used forms of ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology). Scientists use ovules and sperms in a laboratory to assist couples get a baby. IVF is normally recommended after other options have failed.

 
The process of fertilization is carried out in the lab. Doctors combine the male’s sperm and the female’s egg in a lab (In Vitro). The fertilized embryo is then implanted into the female womb to allow growth to occur in a normal environment like other normal pregnancies.

 
The IVF cycle treatments consist of a series of stages. At first, the female receives hormone treatments for egg preparation. The treatment is usually in form of a nasal spray and injections. This increases egg production and the ovary ends up producing about 20 eggs instead of one. This increases the chances of having a fertilized egg.

 
The egg’s growth is monitored using ultra sound scans. The doctors also ensure that the womb’s lining is thickening in preparation for pregnancy. When enough number of eggs has matured, the doctor removes the eggs carefully. The eggs are sucked out by a fine needle that is passed up through the vaginal wall to the ovary. An aesthetic is offered during the process. Further hormonal treatments follow to prepare the womb for pregnancy.
The doctor combines the female’s egg and the male’s sperms in a special fluid that encourages fertilization. This is done in the lab. When the two fuses, fertilization is said to have taken place. The new fertilized egg is called an embryo.

 
The embryos are left for 2 to 5 days after which the doctor puts one or two healthy embryos in the female’s womb. This is done using a fine tube which is placed up through the cervix into the vagina. Aesthetic are not necessary for this process.

 
Sometimes IVF can be used together with ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection). The ICSI involves a sperm being injected directly into an egg. The reason for this can be if there was a first attempt and it failed.

 
Recent research shows that IVF increases the chances of having a baby. It may not work for the first try so one has to try for several times. The treatment works best for females under the age of 35 years. A couple should consider going to a big fertility clinic for better chances of fertilization.

 
For financial issues, a couple may apply for Ehic application (EHIC). The card allows you to access medical health care at a reduced cost and sometimes free of charge. It covers for a routine maternity care so long as you remain within the European jurisdictions when giving birth.

Posted 1 year ago
New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/can-still-enjoy-party-lifestyle-expecting-baby/Can We Still Enjoy Our Party Lifestyle While We Are Expecting a Baby?Finding out that you are expecting a baby can be one of the most memorable  moments in your life. It is even more incredible when you have been  trying hard to conceive. When you find out this news your life literally changes.

 
Men and women need to readjust their lifestyles to become healthier as they prepare for their new family member.

 Coming To Terms With This Adjustment
 
Couples that are used to a very social and party lifestyle may find  that this type of adjustment is a little hard to take. The thought of  opting out of social occasions, passing on alcoholic beverages, and if  they use recreational drugs, passing on these also can make couples  panic.
 It is an overreaction, even if they cannot see it at the time.
You do not have to give up all your social occasions; you simply need  to change how you act when you attend. It is imperative that you refrain from alcohol and narcotics when you are pregnant for the health and  safety of your baby.
 
You can still dance into the wee hours of the night. You can still  attend parties. You can still hang out with friends. You just need to do it without mood enhancing products. You have an obligation to yourself  as a parent-to-be to take the best care of yourself during this very  important time in your life.
  What If Your Partner Or Friends Don’t Understand?
 
If you find yourself in a situation where your partner does not want to give up his lifestyle, or your friends do not want to socialize because you are pregnant, you will need to take a long hard look at who you are spending your time with. While this may seem very harsh to say, it is  scary to believe that loved ones and friends would want to encourage you to act in a way that could endanger yourself or your baby.
 
While there are no real legal obligations that can force a woman or a  man to behave in a certain manner while the couple is expecting, there  is a moral obligation to make the right choices. You are now responsible for a new life, and that life is depending on your every decision. So if you decide to continue socializing with your friends who smoke and  drink, ask them to step outside before lighting their cigarette. Be sure to avoid getting into cars with friends who have been drinking. Avoid  crowded bar districts, where you are a possible target to be hit by  drunk drivers. A mother who is the designated driver  must also keep in mind that medications that  help with morning sickness, such as antihistamines, can cause you to be  charged with a DUI. According to Levow & Associates, if you live in  the state of New Jersey, you may lose your ability to get get to work entirely.
 
Alcohol and narcotics, and even over-the-counter (OTC) drugs can have  real serious impacts on fetal growth and development. Choices you make  during pregnancy can impact the entire life of your baby. Birth defects, developmental delays, and other serious impairments can occur if you  chose to select the party lifestyle over the health and wellness of your baby. This is something you must take into consideration each time you  decide how you want to act when in a social situation.
 
In the end, there is more happiness related to the upcoming birth of  your child than any sadness that you will feel over changing your social habits. You will find that you can be just as social without having to  “party.”
 
 
Joseph Justice is an author and artist specializing in Graphic Design and  presents this post for all parents to be, who may have questions about  the safety of their unborn child. Levow & Associates provided the useful legal information he used while preparing this article.
 
 
Photo Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ladygore-kitten/4924086528/

New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/can-still-enjoy-party-lifestyle-expecting-baby/

Can We Still Enjoy Our Party Lifestyle While We Are Expecting a Baby?

Finding out that you are expecting a baby can be one of the most memorable  moments in your life. It is even more incredible when you have been  trying hard to conceive. When you find out this news your life literally changes. Party while pregnant

 

Men and women need to readjust their lifestyles to become healthier as they prepare for their new family member.

 
Coming To Terms With This Adjustment
 

Couples that are used to a very social and party lifestyle may find  that this type of adjustment is a little hard to take. The thought of  opting out of social occasions, passing on alcoholic beverages, and if  they use recreational drugs, passing on these also can make couples  panic.
 
It is an overreaction, even if they cannot see it at the time.

You do not have to give up all your social occasions; you simply need  to change how you act when you attend. It is imperative that you refrain from alcohol and narcotics when you are pregnant for the health and  safety of your baby.

 
You can still dance into the wee hours of the night. You can still  attend parties. You can still hang out with friends. You just need to do it without mood enhancing products. You have an obligation to yourself  as a parent-to-be to take the best care of yourself during this very  important time in your life.

 
What If Your Partner Or Friends Don’t Understand?

 
If you find yourself in a situation where your partner does not want to give up his lifestyle, or your friends do not want to socialize because you are pregnant, you will need to take a long hard look at who you are spending your time with. While this may seem very harsh to say, it is  scary to believe that loved ones and friends would want to encourage you to act in a way that could endanger yourself or your baby.

 
While there are no real legal obligations that can force a woman or a  man to behave in a certain manner while the couple is expecting, there  is a moral obligation to make the right choices. You are now responsible for a new life, and that life is depending on your every decision. So if you decide to continue socializing with your friends who smoke and  drink, ask them to step outside before lighting their cigarette. Be sure to avoid getting into cars with friends who have been drinking. Avoid  crowded bar districts, where you are a possible target to be hit by  drunk drivers. A mother who is the designated driver  must also keep in mind that medications that  help with morning sickness, such as antihistamines, can cause you to be  charged with a DUI. According to Levow & Associates, if you live in  the state of New Jersey, you may lose your ability to get get to work entirely.

 
Alcohol and narcotics, and even over-the-counter (OTC) drugs can have  real serious impacts on fetal growth and development. Choices you make  during pregnancy can impact the entire life of your baby. Birth defects, developmental delays, and other serious impairments can occur if you  chose to select the party lifestyle over the health and wellness of your baby. This is something you must take into consideration each time you  decide how you want to act when in a social situation.

 
In the end, there is more happiness related to the upcoming birth of  your child than any sadness that you will feel over changing your social habits. You will find that you can be just as social without having to  “party.”
 
 

Joseph Justice is an author and artist specializing in Graphic Design and  presents this post for all parents to be, who may have questions about  the safety of their unborn child. Levow & Associates provided the useful legal information he used while preparing this article.

 
 
Photo Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ladygore-kitten/4924086528/

Posted 1 year ago

New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/just-found-im-pregnant-party-weekend-damage-unborn-child/

I Just Found Out I’m Pregnant: Did My Party Weekend Damage My Unborn Child?

Many women who find out that they are unexpectedly pregnant have a moment where they worry about what they did during that first month or two of pregnancy. A mother has a legal obligation to protect her unborn child and make the home where they will reside, as well as her womb as safe an environment as possible. Drinking, drugs, smoking and excessive partying or even riding with someone who is drunk or smoking can all be dangerous for both you and your child. Mothers need to ensure their child’s safety as soon as they recognize the signs or symptoms of being pregnant.

 

Drinking And Driving

Going out with friends for drinks or heading to a party can be a festive way to spend the evening. However, drinking and partying can hold severe repercussions, especially once you’ve find out that you’re pregnant. While your physician will typically tell you not to worry, you may be wondering if your infant will experience any complications associated with your weekend bender.

Even if you haven’t been partying, you’re putting your own life, and the life of your unborn child in harm’s way if you’re getting into a car with some who has been drinking or using drugs. According to Katz & Phillips, P.A. there are also other legal responsibilities for being a passenger in the vehicle of someone under the influence.Alternate modes of transportation can provide you with a safe way to get home from a bar or party such as a cab, public transportation or  a designated driver.

Smoking

 

Most pregnant women who want to try and conceive will typically try to stop smoking months leading up to the conception. However, if your pregnancy is unexpected, you may have had quite a few cigarettes until you found out you were expecting. Smoking can cause premature births, miscarriages and low birth weight. If you find out that you’re pregnant, and you stop smoking, during the early stages your child may not have any adverse side effects.

Medicating

People who suffer from anxiety, depression, the flu and/or colds have to take medication in order to get better. However, an unplanned pregnancy may leave you wondering if your medication may have harmed your unborn child. Not advising your physician that you haven’t stopped taking these medications can be negligent. It’s a mother’s duty to ensure that their child grows and develops in an environment that is free from harmful substances.

Applying Beauty Products

 

Certain beauty products such as Botox and coloring your hair can affect your pregnancy. When you’re trying to get pregnant, most women stop getting Botox injections or color treating their hair during the months leading up to conception. However, an unplanned pregnancy can prove alarming if you’ve unknowingly gotten treatments for wrinkles, x-rays or if you’ve colored your hair.

A mother has certain legal obligations in ensuring that the life that they carry is given the ultimate chance to grow and develop in a healthy and happy environment. Unexpectedly finding out you’re pregnant after having done some irresponsible things such as drinking, smoking and taking medication can be more than worrisome. However, most doctors feel that if bad behavior is immediately stopped, your child will be given a good chance at a happy and healthy life.

 

Joseph Justice is an author and artist specializing in Graphic Design and presents this post for all parents to be, who may have questions about the safety of their unborn child. Katz & Phillips, P.A. provided the useful legal information he used while preparing this article.   

Posted 1 year ago
New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/chromosomal-mosaicism-in-ivf/What is chromosomal mosaicism in IVF? 



What is ‘chromosomal mosaicism’ and why is it important for IVF?
 
‘Chromosomal mosaicism’ refers to the presence of more than one cell line within the body.

You are a mosaic with respect to your chromosomes if you have had a karyotype in which two or more cell lines have been noted (such as mos (45, X0; 47, XYY) or mos (46, XY; 47, XY + 21).

Chromosomal mosaicism stems from the unequal separation of sister chromatids during fetal life, leading to some cells containing extra chromosomes, and others lacking the same chromosome.

What does chromosomal mosaicism mean for me?
 
If you have been diagnosed as a chromosomal mosaic, you can have a perfectly healthy life, but you may have problems when you decide to have children. In fact,the reason you had a chromosomal analysis is almost certainly because your clinical infertility specialist recommended as part of your infertility diagnosis.

The level of chromosomal mosaicism in the blood should, but does not necessarily reflect the levels of mosaicism in the reproductive organs. This means that if you have 5% mosaicism in the blood for chromosome 21, you may still have 50% mosaicism in the reproductive tissues.

Why is this important? because you may be at risk of passing on genetic disease to your offspring.

Take this example, a cell with 3 copies of chromosome 21 can become two daughter cells with one containg a single 21 and one containing two 21′s. If this cell forms a spermatozoa or egg, the embryo will have three copies of chromosome 21 (Downs syndome).

So, it is advisable always to have a karyotype performed before considering having children.

What can I do if I am diagnosed with chromosomal mosaicism?
If your chromosome analysis does reveal the presence of mosaicism, your best course of action is to seek advice from a clinical geneticist. The best course of treatment for you is probably preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
 
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New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/chromosomal-mosaicism-in-ivf/

What is chromosomal mosaicism in IVF?

 

Chromosomal Mosaicism in IVF

What is ‘chromosomal mosaicism’ and why is it important for IVF?

 

‘Chromosomal mosaicism’ refers to the presence of more than one cell line within the body.

You are a mosaic with respect to your chromosomes if you have had a karyotype in which two or more cell lines have been noted (such as mos (45, X0; 47, XYY) or mos (46, XY; 47, XY + 21).

Chromosomal mosaicism stems from the unequal separation of sister chromatids during fetal life, leading to some cells containing extra chromosomes, and others lacking the same chromosome.

What does chromosomal mosaicism mean for me?

 

If you have been diagnosed as a chromosomal mosaic, you can have a perfectly healthy life, but you may have problems when you decide to have children. In fact,the reason you had a chromosomal analysis is almost certainly because your clinical infertility specialist recommended as part of your infertility diagnosis.

The level of chromosomal mosaicism in the blood should, but does not necessarily reflect the levels of mosaicism in the reproductive organs. This means that if you have 5% mosaicism in the blood for chromosome 21, you may still have 50% mosaicism in the reproductive tissues.

Why is this important? because you may be at risk of passing on genetic disease to your offspring.

Take this example, a cell with 3 copies of chromosome 21 can become two daughter cells with one containg a single 21 and one containing two 21′s. If this cell forms a spermatozoa or egg, the embryo will have three copies of chromosome 21 (Downs syndome).

So, it is advisable always to have a karyotype performed before considering having children.

What can I do if I am diagnosed with chromosomal mosaicism?

If your chromosome analysis does reveal the presence of mosaicism, your best course of action is to seek advice from a clinical geneticist. The best course of treatment for you is probably preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
 

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Posted 1 year ago
New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/picsi/Physiological ICSI and IMSI (pICSI and pIMSI)


The technique of pICSI (physiological ICSI) has been developed to try to return to nature during ICSI (as much as possible of course!). The idea of the technique is to select the best sperm for your ICSI procedure, with as little bias from the embryologist.


Image courtesy of Biocoat

The technique relies on a naturally occurring protein – hyaluronic acid, to select sperm. Yes – hyaluronic acid - the same molecule used in plastic surgery – can get you pregnant naturally!!!.


Why hyaluronic acid? – Because it forms part of the tissue surrounding the egg. In nature, sperm bind to this molecule when they are ripe for fertilisation -get through the outer layers of the egg protective coat and reach the egg itself. In the IVF lab, we don’t use it in the same way – but the principle is the same i.e. if sperm bind to hyaluronic acid- they are the best sperm.

Unfortunately, sperm binding to hyaluronic acid does not mean the absolute best sperm (poor ones can bind but not penetrate the outer layers of the egg). To get the best sperm, you need to combine pICSI with IMSI. We call this technique pIMSI (physiological IMSI).

Image courtesy of Biocoat




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New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/picsi/

Physiological ICSI and IMSI (pICSI and pIMSI)

The technique of pICSI (physiological ICSI) has been developed to try to return to nature during ICSI (as much as possible of course!). The idea of the technique is to select the best sperm for your ICSI procedure, with as little bias from the embryologist.

pICSI dishes

Image courtesy of Biocoat

The technique relies on a naturally occurring protein – hyaluronic acid, to select sperm. Yes – hyaluronic acid - the same molecule used in plastic surgery – can get you pregnant naturally!!!.

Why hyaluronic acid? – Because it forms part of the tissue surrounding the egg. In nature, sperm bind to this molecule when they are ripe for fertilisation -get through the outer layers of the egg protective coat and reach the egg itself. In the IVF lab, we don’t use it in the same way – but the principle is the same i.e. if sperm bind to hyaluronic acid- they are the best sperm.

Unfortunately, sperm binding to hyaluronic acid does not mean the absolute best sperm (poor ones can bind but not penetrate the outer layers of the egg). To get the best sperm, you need to combine pICSI with IMSI. We call this technique pIMSI (physiological IMSI). How does pICSI work?

Image courtesy of Biocoat

Search for an IVF specialist offering pICSI in your area:

 

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Posted 1 year ago
New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/how-to-avoid-the-uk-egg-donation-waiting-list/How to avoid the UK egg donation waiting list

If you need an egg donor in the UK, you most probably have joined a waiting list. These lists vary between a few months and several years before you find a suitable donor for your IVF cycle.

What most clinics don’t tell you however is that there is a way of ‘jumping the queue’, and it doesn’t involve hassling clinics or going abroad.

How? by finding your own egg donor!
 
We at IVFAgent are working hard to generate a database of potential egg donors. These are people in the UK willing to donate eggs to help you start a family.  You can search by region or by physical characteristics.

What happens when I find a suitable egg donor?
 
If you find a suitable egg donor in our list, please get in contact, giving us the donor code. Select 2-3 potential egg donors in order not to be left disappointed. Please remember that life is complex and not everybody that registers with us will be able to donate on request.

Please also indicate which IVF clinic is suitable for you to carry out your egg donation cycle. They don’t have to be on our list. We will get in touch with them, and the egg donor, and start the process off for you.

New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/how-to-avoid-the-uk-egg-donation-waiting-list/

How to avoid the UK egg donation waiting list

If you need an egg donor in the UK, you most probably have joined a waiting list. These lists vary between a few months and several years before you find a suitable donor for your IVF cycle.

What most clinics don’t tell you however is that there is a way of ‘jumping the queue’, and it doesn’t involve hassling clinics or going abroad.

How? by finding your own egg donor!

 

We at IVFAgent are working hard to generate a database of potential egg donors. These are people in the UK willing to donate eggs to help you start a family.  You can search by region or by physical characteristics.

What happens when I find a suitable egg donor?

 

If you find a suitable egg donor in our list, please get in contact, giving us the donor code. Select 2-3 potential egg donors in order not to be left disappointed. Please remember that life is complex and not everybody that registers with us will be able to donate on request.

Please also indicate which IVF clinic is suitable for you to carry out your egg donation cycle. They don’t have to be on our list. We will get in touch with them, and the egg donor, and start the process off for you.

Posted 1 year ago
New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/pgd-for-genetic-disease/PGD for genetic disease

 

If there is evidence of inherited disease in your family, you are well aware of the risks you take in conceiving without help. You or your partner could be carriers of a genetic trait meaning that you may pass that trait on to your offspring. Ways of avoiding the birth of offspring suffering from genetic disease include amniocentesis, but probably the best technique for disease avoidance is in the use of PGD for genetic disease.

How can PGD for genetic disease help me?
 
PGD is a way of diagnosing the genetics of embryos while they are still in the preimplantation stage (for example in the test-tube). How is it done?
 
A small portion of the developing embryo is removed through embryological biopsy techniques developed for PGD. This portion of the embryo is then tested with the PCR technique for the gene in question. The result of the analysis tells us if the embryo is affected, a carrier, or free of the disease.
 
Embryos free of the disease in question are then replaced in the uterus, avoiding genetic disease because affected embryos are not replaced.
 


Who can do PGD?
 
PGD is usually performed in specialised IVF centres. For genetic analysis, these labs often collaborate with geneticists and molecular biologists. In the UK, centres must have a special license to perform PGD and the UK authorities give licenses for PGD of specific diseases. This is to stop the abuse of the technique for eugenetics.

In PGD, sequences of interest include areas of single genes where specific mutations are present, overlapping sequences between deletion breakpoints and sequences between translocations. The type of analysis technique used depends on the sequence of interest. PCR analysis in PGD is currently most widely used in the diagnosis of genetic disease and immunohistocompatibility.


How do scientists analyse my embryos with PGD?
 
With PGD for genetic disease, scientists use the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction to diagnose your embryos. PCR is a technique in which small sections of the genes in question are used to amplify the gene under analysis. When there is enough DNA to test, a second system is used to analyse the gene in question. This system could include gene sequencing to see if the gene has the right sequence.

Is PGD better than amniocentesis?
 
There is a lot of discussion about which is the better technique. PGD is better in the sense that a pregnancy does not have to go forwards before analysis can be undertaken. We think this is better for couples because the anxiety of the pregnancy is reduced.
 
On the other hand, with amniocentesis more cels are available for analysis, which makes the technique more reliable.
 


Which genetic diseases can be analysed with PGD?
 
Essentially, any genetic disease can be analysed with PGD. Some of the common genetic diseases analysed are shown here:
 
Cystic fibrosis
Di George syndrome
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Fragile-X
Haemophilia A
Retinitis pigmentosum
Spinal muscular atrophy
Tay-Sachs disease
Thalassemia

Won’t embryo biopsy hurt or damage the embryos?
 
Embryo biopsy removes a small portion of the embryos’ genetic material. Studies have not shown that this damages the embryo. However, efforts are being made to improve the biopsy technique such as blastocyst biopsy.

 
What is genetic disease?

The function of the human body is maintained by the production of proteins often from a single gene. Because each gene has two copies or alleles (originating from the mother and father of the individual), a certain amount of toleration towards mutations in the genetic code of individual genes occurs within the body. This means that carriers of genetic disease are normal individuals in which one of the alleles of a gene is mutated.

Genetic disease then occurs when two carriers of a specific disease produce offspring in which both mutations are present. When two individuals are carriers, there is a 1 in 4 (25%) chance of producing affected offspring. A further 2 in 4 (50%) of offspring are themselves carriers, ad 1 in 4 (25%) are free of the disease. In these cases, even if these carriers are perfectly fertile, PGD can be recommended to enable the genetic testing of the embryos and eliminate the 1 in 4 risk of producing offspring affected by the disease.

PGD techniques of choice.The use of FISH in preimplantation genetic diagnosis.PGD.

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New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/pgd-for-genetic-disease/

PGD for genetic disease

 

If there is evidence of inherited disease in your family, you are well aware of the risks you take in conceiving without help. You or your partner could be carriers of a genetic trait meaning that you may pass that trait on to your offspring. Ways of avoiding the birth of offspring suffering from genetic disease include amniocentesis, but probably the best technique for disease avoidance is in the use of PGD for genetic disease.

How can PGD for genetic disease help me?

 

PGD is a way of diagnosing the genetics of embryos while they are still in the preimplantation stage (for example in the test-tube). How is it done?
 
A small portion of the developing embryo is removed through embryological biopsy techniques developed for PGD. This portion of the embryo is then tested with the PCR technique for the gene in question. The result of the analysis tells us if the embryo is affected, a carrier, or free of the disease.
 
Embryos free of the disease in question are then replaced in the uterus, avoiding genetic disease because affected embryos are not replaced.
 

Who can do PGD?

 
PGD is usually performed in specialised IVF centres. For genetic analysis, these labs often collaborate with geneticists and molecular biologists. In the UK, centres must have a special license to perform PGD and the UK authorities give licenses for PGD of specific diseases. This is to stop the abuse of the technique for eugenetics.

In PGD, sequences of interest include areas of single genes where specific mutations are present, overlapping sequences between deletion breakpoints and sequences between translocations. The type of analysis technique used depends on the sequence of interest. PCR analysis in PGD is currently most widely used in the diagnosis of genetic disease and immunohistocompatibility. Diagnosis with PCR of PGD for genetic disease

How do scientists analyse my embryos with PGD?

 
With PGD for genetic disease, scientists use the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction to diagnose your embryos. PCR is a technique in which small sections of the genes in question are used to amplify the gene under analysis. When there is enough DNA to test, a second system is used to analyse the gene in question. This system could include gene sequencing to see if the gene has the right sequence.

Is PGD better than amniocentesis?

 
There is a lot of discussion about which is the better technique. PGD is better in the sense that a pregnancy does not have to go forwards before analysis can be undertaken. We think this is better for couples because the anxiety of the pregnancy is reduced.
 
On the other hand, with amniocentesis more cels are available for analysis, which makes the technique more reliable.
 

Which genetic diseases can be analysed with PGD?

 
Essentially, any genetic disease can be analysed with PGD. Some of the common genetic diseases analysed are shown here:
 
Cystic fibrosis

Di George syndrome

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Fragile-X

Haemophilia A

Retinitis pigmentosum

Spinal muscular atrophy

Tay-Sachs disease

Thalassemia

Won’t embryo biopsy hurt or damage the embryos?

 
Embryo biopsy removes a small portion of the embryos’ genetic material. Studies have not shown that this damages the embryo. However, efforts are being made to improve the biopsy technique such as blastocyst biopsy.

 

What is genetic disease?

The function of the human body is maintained by the production of proteins often from a single gene. Because each gene has two copies or alleles (originating from the mother and father of the individual), a certain amount of toleration towards mutations in the genetic code of individual genes occurs within the body. This means that carriers of genetic disease are normal individuals in which one of the alleles of a gene is mutated.

Genetic disease then occurs when two carriers of a specific disease produce offspring in which both mutations are present. When two individuals are carriers, there is a 1 in 4 (25%) chance of producing affected offspring. A further 2 in 4 (50%) of offspring are themselves carriers, ad 1 in 4 (25%) are free of the disease. In these cases, even if these carriers are perfectly fertile, PGD can be recommended to enable the genetic testing of the embryos and eliminate the 1 in 4 risk of producing offspring affected by the disease.

PGD techniques of choice.
The use of FISH in preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
PGD.

Search for an IVF specialist in your area:


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Posted 1 year ago
New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/pgd/Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

 


Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an extremely sophisticated, powerful and advanced technique that combines laboratory IVF technology with molecular diagnostics. The aim of PGD is to avoid the transmission of genetic diseases through the elimination of affected embryos. This is an alternative to prenatal diagnosis, which involves the genetic analysis of the developing foetus. Advantages and disadvantages of the PGD technique are listed below:
 

PGD
Amniocentesis
Advantages
1) Genetic disease is diagnosed before implantation and therefore no need for pregnancy termination.2) IVF techniques simple and reliable in top centres.
1) Presence of significant amounts of foetal material and therefore reliable diagnosis.2) Techniques well established and widely available.
Disadvantages
1) Techniques not widely available i.e. require IVF centre.
2) Little material obtained from embryo (1-2 cells). Therefore theoretically not as reliable as amniocentesis.
3) Not certain that pregnancy will be obtained.
1) Maternal contamination of amniotic fluid can lead to misdiagnosis.
2) Need to terminate established pregnancy in case of positive diagnosis.

The advantage of PGD is the elimination of the need to interrupt pregnancy in people at risk of transmitting genetic abnormalities to their children. Basically, PGD works by removing a cell of the embryo developing in vitro, after which the DNA contained in the nucleus of the cell is tested for the disease of choice, and embryos affected by the disease are simply not replaced into the patients’ uterus.  Even if you are fertile, this technique can work.

Two analysis techniques are used presently. These are fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).  Basically, FISH analysis permits the analysis of copy number either of whole chromosomes, or, where probes are available, specific regions of chromosomes and even certain sequences. In contrast, PCR analysis permits the molecular detection of specific sequences and even point mutations, such as the regions of the haemoglobin gene mutated in thalassemia patients. PGD can be offered both to fertile couples at risk of passing on genetic disease such as Thalassemia or Cystic Fibrosis, or to couples already undergoing infertility treatment for a variety of causes.

PGD Technique
Infertile couples
Fertile couples
FISH/CGH
1) Sex selection (haemophilia etc).
2) Partial chromosome abnormalities (translocations, deletions, inversions etc).
3) Mosaic karyotype (i.e. partial Turner mosaic female, partial Downs syndrome).
4) Abnormal non-mosaic karyotype (i.e. XXX female, XYY male).
5) Advanced maternal age (selection against Downs syndrome etc).
6) Previous abnormal pregnancy (i.e. Trisomy 13, 18 or 21).
1) Aneuploidy analysis for poor embryo quality (selection against chaotic mosaicism).
2) Advanced maternal age (selection against Downs syndrome etc).
3) Repetitive spontaneous pregnancy loss due to foetal chromosomal abnormalities.
4) Unexplained infertility.
PCR
1) Couple both carriers of genetic defect (i.e. Cystic Fibrosis, Thalassemia).
2) Partial chromosome abnormalities (translocations, inversions, deletions etc).
1) Suspected Cystic Fibrosis in infertile male (i.e. Combined bilateral absence of Vas Deferens and Cystic Fibrosis).
2) Genetic causes of infertility (for example azoospermis due to AZF in males).
 
For more details on PGD techniques (including technical data) please follow the links below:PGD techniques of choice.The use of FISH in preimplantation genetic diagnosis.The use of PCR in preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

 
What kind of couples can be helped by PGD? Basically, all couples, both suffering from infertility and normally fertile, can be treated with PGD.  PGD helps not only to avoid the transmission of genetic disease, but is also a useful tool in the selection of the best embryos for transfer.  This is because PGD can be used to look for embryos with a normal chromosome content, which are most likely to develop normally and implant.
What kind of success rates can be expected?  As for all IVF techniques, the pregnancy rate after PGD depends on maternal age.
Search for an IVF centre offering PGD in your area:

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New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/pgd/

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

 

Diagnose a new life with PGD. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an extremely sophisticated, powerful and advanced technique that combines laboratory IVF technology with molecular diagnostics. The aim of PGD is to avoid the transmission of genetic diseases through the elimination of affected embryos. This is an alternative to prenatal diagnosis, which involves the genetic analysis of the developing foetus. Advantages and disadvantages of the PGD technique are listed below:

 

PGD Amniocentesis
Advantages 1) Genetic disease is diagnosed before implantation and therefore no need for pregnancy termination.2) IVF techniques simple and reliable in top centres. 1) Presence of significant amounts of foetal material and therefore reliable diagnosis.2) Techniques well established and widely available.
Disadvantages 1) Techniques not widely available i.e. require IVF centre.
2) Little material obtained from embryo (1-2 cells). Therefore theoretically not as reliable as amniocentesis.
3) Not certain that pregnancy will be obtained.
1) Maternal contamination of amniotic fluid can lead to misdiagnosis.
2) Need to terminate established pregnancy in case of positive diagnosis.

The advantage of PGD is the elimination of the need to interrupt pregnancy in people at risk of transmitting genetic abnormalities to their children. Basically, PGD works by removing a cell of the embryo developing in vitro, after which the DNA contained in the nucleus of the cell is tested for the disease of choice, and embryos affected by the disease are simply not replaced into the patients’ uterus.  Even if you are fertile, this technique can work.

Two analysis techniques are used presently. These are fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).  Basically, FISH analysis permits the analysis of copy number either of whole chromosomes, or, where probes are available, specific regions of chromosomes and even certain sequences. In contrast, PCR analysis permits the molecular detection of specific sequences and even point mutations, such as the regions of the haemoglobin gene mutated in thalassemia patients. PGD can be offered both to fertile couples at risk of passing on genetic disease such as Thalassemia or Cystic Fibrosis, or to couples already undergoing infertility treatment for a variety of causes.

PGD Technique Infertile couples Fertile couples
FISH/CGH 1) Sex selection (haemophilia etc).
2) Partial chromosome abnormalities (translocations, deletions, inversions etc).
3) Mosaic karyotype (i.e. partial Turner mosaic female, partial Downs syndrome).
4) Abnormal non-mosaic karyotype (i.e. XXX female, XYY male).
5) Advanced maternal age (selection against Downs syndrome etc).
6) Previous abnormal pregnancy (i.e. Trisomy 13, 18 or 21).
1) Aneuploidy analysis for poor embryo quality (selection against chaotic mosaicism).
2) Advanced maternal age (selection against Downs syndrome etc).
3) Repetitive spontaneous pregnancy loss due to foetal chromosomal abnormalities.
4) Unexplained infertility.
PCR 1) Couple both carriers of genetic defect (i.e. Cystic Fibrosis, Thalassemia).
2) Partial chromosome abnormalities (translocations, inversions, deletions etc).
1) Suspected Cystic Fibrosis in infertile male (i.e. Combined bilateral absence of Vas Deferens and Cystic Fibrosis).
2) Genetic causes of infertility (for example azoospermis due to AZF in males).

 

For more details on PGD techniques (including technical data) please follow the links below:
PGD techniques of choice.
The use of FISH in preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
The use of PCR in preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

 

What kind of couples can be helped by PGD? Basically, all couples, both suffering from infertility and normally fertile, can be treated with PGD.  PGD helps not only to avoid the transmission of genetic disease, but is also a useful tool in the selection of the best embryos for transfer.  This is because PGD can be used to look for embryos with a normal chromosome content, which are most likely to develop normally and implant.

What kind of success rates can be expected?  As for all IVF techniques, the pregnancy rate after PGD depends on maternal age.

Search for an IVF centre offering PGD in your area:

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Posted 1 year ago
New Post has been published on http://www.ivfagent.com/6-ways-to-ease-the-stress-of-infertility/6 Ways to Ease the Stress of Infertility

Infertility can become a great cause of stress and anxiety especially among women. It can impact both individually and as a couple. Going through the paces can be tough and you need to have great coping skills to overcome the challenge. Infertility is a great challenge but with guidance the couple can improve their relationship further and tackle the issues and the problems of infertility together.

Bring back the fun in your life
When women are anxious about getting pregnant, sometimes they become pre-occupied with the idea. There is a tendency to enjoy the best that life could offer. Enjoy the things that you have been doing in the past. Do not let the prospects of infertility drag you down. There is more to life than just having difficulty getting pregnant. The worse thing that could happen is to feel sorry. What you can do it is to plan a weekend getaway and try to see as many places as you can. It will at least keep your mind out from the challenges of being unable to conceive as supposed to. There is more to life than just worrying about being unable to get pregnant so quickly. Therefore, get a grip and enjoy life to the fullest.
Keep a journal about your thoughts
The thought of being infertile can make anyone go haywire. But the truth is that you should not ruin your life because of this challenge. Why not write down the things that would make you happy aside from having a baby. Getting pregnant and becoming a mother is the best thing that could happen in a woman’s life. It is the single most precious thing that defines you as a woman. Sadly, there are women that are not able to bear a child easily. You can overcome this stressful thought by focusing on thoughts that would make you complete despite the troubles of infertility.
Spend more quality time 
Spending more quality time with your significant other is the best way to let go of negative emotions due to prospects of infertility. Make sure that each moment with your partner is a passionate and enjoyable time. Use the time to connect and feel the care that your partner gives. Find solace that despite the things that make you less of a woman there is a man that is able to find time to make you complete and happy. You can do all sorts of things together as long as you bond well and spend quality time.
Spend time in the salon
Just because you face the specter of infertility means you are allowed to neglect self-care. No ma’am. Give yourself a treat and feel good by dropping by the local salon and have a make-over or a simple mani-pedi. Never neglect to maintain your health because of the situation. Exercise regularly and eat sensibly. Who knows? This might do the trick and you’ll be on your way to motherhood.
Accept things as they are
Pretending that infertility has no impact on you will just make things worse. Learn to acknowledge the fact that fertility is a difficult situation. Accepting things as they are will help you to become more relaxed and calmer. Choose an outlet of your emotions through art. If you are not artistic, try to write your emotions in and make a story out of it or even write a poem about your situation.
Find a support group
Couples that are facing the challenges of infertility often feel alone and desolate. However, that should not be the case. In fact there are other couples out there that are also facing similar predicaments. Why not reach out to other couples who are also battling the challenges of infertility? The support group can help you get on track towards the right frame of mind. After all, you cannot face alone all the challenges you need to cavalry so you should find someone to back you up.
Ask your doctor about your options and never give up. Try every option that is available to you. Who knows you can find the miracle that you have been waiting as long as you keep the faith that soon you will become pregnant.
About the Author:
Ryan Rivera writes about stress, anxiety and panic attacks. For more information regarding these topics, you can visit his Calm Clinic Twitter account.

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6 Ways to Ease the Stress of Infertility

Infertility can become a great cause of stress and anxiety especially among women. It can impact both individually and as a couple. Going through the paces can be tough and you need to have great coping skills to overcome the challenge. Infertility is a great challenge but with guidance the couple can improve their relationship further and tackle the issues and the problems of infertility together.

Bring back the fun in your life

When women are anxious about getting pregnant, sometimes they become pre-occupied with the idea. There is a tendency to enjoy the best that life could offer. Enjoy the things that you have been doing in the past. Do not let the prospects of infertility drag you down. There is more to life than just having difficulty getting pregnant. The worse thing that could happen is to feel sorry. What you can do it is to plan a weekend getaway and try to see as many places as you can. It will at least keep your mind out from the challenges of being unable to conceive as supposed to. There is more to life than just worrying about being unable to get pregnant so quickly. Therefore, get a grip and enjoy life to the fullest.

Keep a journal about your thoughts

The thought of being infertile can make anyone go haywire. But the truth is that you should not ruin your life because of this challenge. Why not write down the things that would make you happy aside from having a baby. Getting pregnant and becoming a mother is the best thing that could happen in a woman’s life. It is the single most precious thing that defines you as a woman. Sadly, there are women that are not able to bear a child easily. You can overcome this stressful thought by focusing on thoughts that would make you complete despite the troubles of infertility.

Spend more quality time

Spending more quality time with your significant other is the best way to let go of negative emotions due to prospects of infertility. Make sure that each moment with your partner is a passionate and enjoyable time. Use the time to connect and feel the care that your partner gives. Find solace that despite the things that make you less of a woman there is a man that is able to find time to make you complete and happy. You can do all sorts of things together as long as you bond well and spend quality time.

Spend time in the salon

Just because you face the specter of infertility means you are allowed to neglect self-care. No ma’am. Give yourself a treat and feel good by dropping by the local salon and have a make-over or a simple mani-pedi. Never neglect to maintain your health because of the situation. Exercise regularly and eat sensibly. Who knows? This might do the trick and you’ll be on your way to motherhood.

Accept things as they are

Pretending that infertility has no impact on you will just make things worse. Learn to acknowledge the fact that fertility is a difficult situation. Accepting things as they are will help you to become more relaxed and calmer. Choose an outlet of your emotions through art. If you are not artistic, try to write your emotions in and make a story out of it or even write a poem about your situation.

Find a support group

Couples that are facing the challenges of infertility often feel alone and desolate. However, that should not be the case. In fact there are other couples out there that are also facing similar predicaments. Why not reach out to other couples who are also battling the challenges of infertility? The support group can help you get on track towards the right frame of mind. After all, you cannot face alone all the challenges you need to cavalry so you should find someone to back you up.

Ask your doctor about your options and never give up. Try every option that is available to you. Who knows you can find the miracle that you have been waiting as long as you keep the faith that soon you will become pregnant.

About the Author:

Ryan Rivera writes about stress, anxiety and panic attacks. For more information regarding these topics, you can visit his Calm Clinic Twitter account.